News Karnataka
Wednesday, October 05 2022

Syndromes of the Neck and Head and its manifestations

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What is meant by the term syndrome?

Syn = together &Dromos = running

A set of symptoms (features that a patient complains) or physical conditions that occur together giving the picture of a particular disease or abnormality.

What is the main reason for causing the syndromes?

The major reason for any kind of syndrome is mostly related to the genetic reasons or the cause is unknown.

Down’s syndrome:

It is a common disease associated with subnormal mentality in which an extremely wide variety of anomalies and functional disorders may occur, two of the chief types being cranial (head) and facial (face) deformities.


  • Flat face and Flat nose
  • Almond shaped eye, with slant upwards
  • Macroglossia (large tongue)
  • Fissured/ pebbly tongue
  • Malformed teeth
  • Smaller teeth
  • Narrow jaws
  • Small hands and feet
  • Shorter in height as children and adults 


Papillon lefevre syndrome: It is a syndrome which includes both oral and dermatologic (Skin) findings.


  • Hyperkeratosis (thickening) of palm, finger, toes, etc.
  • Swollen gingiva (gums)
  • Halitosis (bad smelling mouth)
  • Early loosening of teeth.
  • Fish scale skin 

Sjogren’s syndrome: It is a chronic, systemic auto-immune disorder that principally involves the salivary (gland that secretes saliva) and lacrimal glands (gland that secrete tears).


  • Xerostomia (dry mouth due to decreased saliva secretion)
  • Xerophthalmia (dry eyes due to decreased tear secretion)
  • Difficulty in swallowing
  • Altered taste
  • Increased caries incidence
  • Halitosis
  • Prone for fungal infections. 


Pirre robin syndrome: Pierre Robin syndromeis a condition in which an infant has a smaller than normal lower jaw, a tongue that falls back in the throat, and difficulty in breathing.


  • Micrognathia (smaller jaws than normal)
  • Abnormal posterior placement of tongue (glossoptosis)
  • Airway obstruction
  • Cleft palate

About the Author

This article has been contributed by the Department of Oral Pathology & Microbiology,Yenepoya Dental College under the Yenepoya (Deemed to be University) established in the yearThe department has a robust alumni of 3000 under graduates and 67 Post graduates students and researchScholars which have many accolades and achievements to its credit. It strives to provide state of art Oral diagnostics and Molecular Pathology while excelling in research activities and instilling a holistic approach in dental education among students. Department contributes its expertise in fosteringInter-disciplinary collaboration and providing exemplary education and scientific research.

 Image courtesy psodaz by Pixabay

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